Download Auger- and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy in Materials by Siegfried Hofmann PDF

By Siegfried Hofmann

To somebody who's attracted to floor chemical research of fabrics at the nanometer scale, this ebook is ready to provide applicable details. according to usual program examples in fabrics technology, a concise method of all facets of quantitative research of surfaces and skinny movies with AES and XPS is equipped. ranging from easy rules that are step-by-step constructed into essentially valuable equations, wide assistance is given to graduate scholars in addition to to skilled researchers. Key chapters are these on quantitative floor research and on quantitative intensity profiling, together with fresh advancements in subject matters reminiscent of floor excitation parameter and backscattering correction issue. simple relatives are derived for emission and excitation attitude dependencies within the research of bulk fabric and of fractional nano-layer buildings, and for either tender and tough surfaces. it's proven the right way to optimize the analytical approach, signal-to-noise ratio, walk in the park and detection restrict. labored examples for quantification of alloys and of layer buildings in functional circumstances (e.g. illness, evaporation, segregation and oxidation) are used to severely assessment various ways to quantification with recognize to usual matrix correction elements and matrix relative sensitivity components. state of the art concerns in quantitative, harmful and non-destructive intensity profiling are mentioned with emphasis on sputter intensity profiling and on perspective resolved XPS and AES. taking into consideration preferential sputtering and electron backscattering corrections, an creation to the mixing-roughness-information intensity (MRI) version and its extensions is gifted.

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Extra resources for Auger- and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy in Materials Science: A User-Oriented Guide

Example text

This is particularly necessary for depth profiling with a conventional large area XPS system. Electron impact ion guns provide a focused ion beam with low-energy spread. However, a disadvantage of ion guns based on electron impact ionization is the remarkable amount of reneutralized ArC ions with high energy in the beam that are not deflected but capable of eroding the target surface. Therefore, an additional sputtered spot is created, and after a certain sputtering time, the depth in that spot becomes remarkably larger than that of the adjacent area covered by the x–y-rastered beam.

3) (Reproduced from M. Cardona and L. 5]. Copyright by Springer Verlag) used for convenient Bragg law dispersion and for focusing the X-rays to the sample surface. 6 mm, and careful adjustment is crucial for optimum operation. Of course, the photon flux is much reduced compared to a normal X-ray source. In part, this can be compensated by increasing the emission brightness using a fine-focused electron beam for the excitation. This quite naturally leads to small-spot XPS and to XPS scanning microscopy (see Sect.

The main parts are (1) the specimen on a sample holder with x–y–z movement stage, (2) an excitation source (X-ray source for XPS, electron gun for AES), (3) the electron energy analyzer with detector, and (4) an auxiliary ion gun. Whereas these elements are mounted within a vacuum chamber, the detection and steering electronics are placed outside in the laboratory room. Let us first turn briefly to the instrument’s vacuum system. 1 Vacuum System The SI unit of the pressure is Pascal, Pa ŒN=m2 , traceably defined in the metric system.

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