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Thus, knowing the crystal lattice spacing ds the wavelength A of the γ-radiation in a known order can be calculated by using Bragg’s equation. This method has two disadvantages. Firstly, the measurements become more difficult and less precise as the energy of the γ-rays increases and the wavelength decreases, and so the method can be used upto 1 MeV only. Secondly, the method requires highly active γ-ray source. (ii) By a Magnetic Spectrograph: The wavelengths of γ-rays of moderate energy can be determined by an indirect method using a magnetic spectrograph.

Since in β-decay a neutron is converted into a proton, the neutron/ proton ratio decreases. In β-decay, the mass number (number of nucleons) of the radioactive nucleus remains unchanged, but the atomic number (number of protons) increases by unity. Hence the equation for β-decay can be written as 50 Encyclopaedia of Atomic Physics zXA → Parent nucleus A z+1Y + Daughter nucleus _ lβo + v . Beta particle (electron) Similarly, the positron emission takes place on the spontaneous conversion of a proton into a neutron by ejecting π+-meson which decays almost instantly into a positron (e+) and a neutrino.

Since λ ∝ 1 (where T is half-life), we can write T NU TU = or TU = NR TR ⎛ NU ⎞ ⎜ ⎟. 23 × 10–7 gm of radium. 23 × 10–7). 94 × 106. 23 × 10 −7 NU and for TR (= 1600 years) in eq. 70× 109 years. 26. 8 × l04. 5 × 105 years. Find the half-life of U238 [Ans. 5 × 109 years]. 2 Nuclear Radioactivity Decay of Radioactive Nucleus Explanation of α-emission from Radioactive Nuclei: The nuclei of heavier atoms, beyond bismuth (83Bi209), are unstable (radioactive) with respect either to α- or to β-emission.

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