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By Otfried Höffe

This can be an English translation of Otfried Hoffe's examine, initially in German, proposing the lifestyles and works of Aristotle, revealing him as a latest, forward-thinking thinker. topics of ethics, politics, metaphysics, psychology, biology and rhetoric are all mentioned and Aristotle is usually in comparison to a number different philosophers, specifically these of German beginning. Hoffe has been a number one contributor to debates on ethical, criminal, political and philosophical matters for nearly thirty years.

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18). This page intentionally left blank. 2 RESEARCHER, SCHOLAR, AND PHILOSOPHER Aristotle deals with practically all the research subjects available in his time, adding domains such as topics, including the Sophistical Refutations (= Top. IX). According to his own testimony, he was the first to explore this field (Top. ), and he took it to very high standards straightaway. Aristotle developed a formal logic, a logic of discourse, and a theory of scientific proof, as well as theories of rhetoric and literature.

EN I 1, I 2, I 7, and II 2; de An. I 1, 402a–403a). Secondly, we find reflections about a general theory of science, for example in the Physics (I 1) and with particular frequency in the Ethics. There is a brief but instructive remark at the beginning of the discussion on weakness of will (EN VII 1, 1145b2–7); and the sixth book of the Ethics introduces not only the knowledge pertinent to moral actions, that is, prudence with its related competences. Given that the Ethics considers the logos the achievement characteristic of man, it describes in an almost encyclopedic way all its varieties, its five basic forms—art (technê), knowledge (epistêmê), prudence (phronêsis), wisdom (sophia), and the spirit (nous)—as well as numerous variants.

The sequence starts from an ultimately first knowledge, namely the perception of single things, and culminates in the highest knowledge possible, that is, philosophy, understood as the cognition of the first principles. Like Hegel, Aristotle, too, succeeds in deploying the wealth of epistemic possibilities without losing himself in mere variety. Compared to Hegel’s, however, his claim is more modest: in the end he only focuses on theoretical matters, and here, though not in all of his œuvre, he leaves aside the practical knowledge of prudence as well as rhetoric and poetry.

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