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By C. Lu, A.W. Czanderna

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In Chapter 9 of this book, the details of a commercial QCM capable of oper­ ating at cryogenic temperatures are discussed (see Figs. 1 to 3 in Chapter 9). When a QCM is used in or near a plasma, such as in a sputtering system, it may not perform satisfactorily. The major problem is excessive heating of the mass sensing crystal due to bombardment by energetic electrons. The thermal stress generated in the crystal can cause frequency instability or even crystal failure. A metal screen can be placed in front of the crystal to collect the incoming electrons, while still permitting most of the sputtered material to pass through to deposit on the QCM.

28) is the equivalent Pft f - PqVq f f (29) Since l/fc and 1/fq are the periods of oscillation for the quartz crystal resonator with and without the deposited material respec­ tively, Eq. (28) or (29) implies that the areal density of a deposited film is linearly proportional to the change in period of oscillation. The changing mass sensitivity as defined by Eq. (24), and expressed in terms of frequency change per unit areal density, is not explicitly shown in Eqs. (28) and (29). Only a proportionality constant (pqVq/2), which is independent of the mass load on the quartz crystal is shown in these equations.

A high-temperature crystal holder employing the double crystal configuration was described by Langer and Patton [42] . In Chapter 9 of this book, the details of a commercial QCM capable of oper­ ating at cryogenic temperatures are discussed (see Figs. 1 to 3 in Chapter 9). When a QCM is used in or near a plasma, such as in a sputtering system, it may not perform satisfactorily. The major problem is excessive heating of the mass sensing crystal due to bombardment by energetic electrons. The thermal stress generated in the crystal can cause frequency instability or even crystal failure.

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