By W. A. Phillips (auth.), W. Andrew Phillips Ph.D. (eds.)
It is now ten years because it was once first convincingly proven that lower than 1 ok the ther mal conductivity and the warmth capability of amorphous solids behave in a manner that is strikingly diversified to that of crystalline solids. due to the fact that that point there was a large choice of experimental and theoretical experiences that have not just outlined and clarified the low temperature challenge extra heavily, yet have additionally associated those variations among amorphous and crystalline solids to these steered via older acoustic and thermal experiments (extending as much as a hundred K). The curiosity during this a bit constrained department of physics lies to a substantial quantity within the indisputable fact that the variations have been so unforeseen. it'd be suggestion that because the tempera ture, probing frequency, or extra ordinarily the power decreases, a continuum de scription during which structural modifications among glass and crystal are hid should still develop into extra actual. In a feeling this can be real, however it looks that there exists in an amorphous strong a wide density of extra excitations that have no counterpart in general crystals. This booklet provides a survey of the wide variety of experimental investigations of those low power excitations, including a re view of a few of the theoretical versions recommend to provide an explanation for their life and nature.
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Additional resources for Amorphous Solids: Low-Temperature Properties
In column 7 and 8 the constants c1 and c3 are listed, determined from specific heat measurements. 4) here, N is the number density of atoms, and p the mass density of the glass (column 1); vl and vt are the experimentally determined longitudinal and transverse sound velocities, respectively; kB is Boltzmann's constant; and ~ is the Planck's constant h/2rr. vUeb is listed in column 4. The experimentally determined c3 term is larger than expected on the basis of the Debye model, as a comparison of columns 6 and 8 shows.
Specific heat of two samples of pressed A1203 powder obtained from two different sources. 13. 48]) where it exceeds the specific heat of single crystal A1 203 by approximately fivefold. 13. Surprisingly, this specific heat, which exceeds that of bulk vitreous silica, was found to be equal to that of porous Vycor, which can be viewed as an interconnected network of silica with pore sizes of ~70 and an average density 70% of bulk silica; it is produced by leaching the boron-rich phase out of a phase-separated borosilicate glass in hydrochloric acid.
We will review this work in the following. Heat treatment of silica at 1400-1500oC causes it to devitrify; the resulting crystal phase is that of (polycrystalline) cristobalite. The crystallites have diameters of a few microns, and the material is described as highly porous [Ref. 60]. 53] between 2 and 22 K. Apparently, the crystallization removes the low-temperature anomaly; to be precise: the experimental data allow placing an upper limit of c1 ~ 10 erg/g K2 on the linear anomaly. The hump at T/e ~ 3 x 10-2 has been correlated with the soft transverse acoustic mode in cristobalite.