By Kim Hawtrey (auth.)
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Additional info for Affordable Housing Finance
Admittedly, the figures mentioned above were mostly of those before the credit crisis. Since the crisis, the housing price “bubble” has burst and it might be assumed that housing stress has eased somewhat. While that is partly true, by no means has the problem of housing stress gone away. 1 provides an international, postcrisis overview of housing affordability problems. 1 Distribution of markets by housing affordability, 2008 (six countries) Source: 5th Annual Demographia International Housing Affordability Survey (Cox and Pavletich, 2009).
Social capital literature documents a flow-on effect from such civic connection to economic outcomes such as income growth, with implications for economic performance (Glaeser and Sacerdote, 2000). One of the key factors enhancing this sense of social unity is housing stability. Further evidence in this direction, that housing strengthens communities, is provided by DiPasquale and Glaeser (1998) who demonstrated that homeowners are more likely to know their Congressional representative (by ten percent) and school board head by name (by nine percent), and are more likely to vote in local elections (by 15 percent) and work to solve local problems (by six percent).
Economic costs of housing stress In the UK, the Cost-effectiveness in Housing Investment (CEHI) research program proposed the notion of the “exported” costs of inadequate housing. The CEHI argued that poor living conditions can be expected 14 Affordable Housing Finance to generate additional costs to key non-housing service providers, including the following: • The education service: poor, overcrowded and noisy home conditions impede learning. • The police and judicial services: poor housing and environmental design and construction is associated with a higher incidence of some crimes.