By Keith Johnson
Absolutely revised and improved, the 3rd variation of Acoustic and Auditory Phonetics continues a stability of accessibility and scholarly rigor to supply scholars with a whole advent to the physics of speech.
Newly up-to-date to mirror the newest advances within the field
includes a balanced and student-friendly method of speech, with attractive side-bars on similar topics
contains steered readings and workouts designed to study and extend upon the fabric in every one bankruptcy, whole with chosen answers
provides a brand new bankruptcy on speech conception that addresses theoretical concerns in addition to sensible concerns
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Extra resources for Acoustic and Auditory Phonetics (3rd Edition)
This compensates for the fact that the acoustic reflection at the open end of the tube is a little “soft” and the reflection point is actually a little beyond the end of the tube. 9a shows the second resonant frequency and illustrates that in this type of tube the relationship between the resonant frequencies is not as simple as in the tube closed at both ends. Recall that in a tube closed at both ends, resonant frequencies occur at multiples of the lowest resonance; that is, the second resonant frequency is twice the first resonant frequency, and so on.
We then measured the amplitude of the sine wave at approximately equal intervals along the length of the tube, sliding the microphone on a stick from the open end to the closed end. 12. The horizontal axis of the figure shows the location of the microphone in the tube, where zero is the microphone end. The vertical axis is the amplitude of the sound wave. 10. We measured nearly zero amplitude at points that are identified in the standing wave as “nodes” – that is, locations of minimum particle displacement.
N. (1972) The quantal nature of speech: Evidence from articulatory-acoustic data. In E. E. David, Jr. and P. B. ), Human Communication: A unified view, New York: McGraw-Hill, 51–66. The original publication of Ken Stevens’ quantal theory. Stevens, K. N. (1989) On the quantal nature of speech. Journal of Phonetics, 17, 3–45. A later, updated statement of the quantal theory. qxd 5/19/11 9:39 AM 48 Page 48 Fundamentals Exercises Sufficient jargon Define the following terms: voicing, fundamental frequency of voicing, harmonics, nonlinear, quantal region, resonant frequencies, standing wave, antinode, node, simple harmonic system, wavelength, speed of sound (in cm/s), polarity change, acoustic reflection, formant, F1, F2, F3, Ruben’s tube.