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By V.L. Ginzburg

In approximately technological know-how, Myself and Others, Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg, co-recipient of the 2003 Nobel Prize in Physics and Editor of the assessment magazine Physics-Uspekhi, offers an perception into sleek physics, the lives and works of different favorite physicists he has recognized, and perception into his personal lifestyles and perspectives on physics and past.

Divided into 3 elements, the e-book begins with a overview of the foremost difficulties in modern physics, astrophysics, and cosmology, reading their old improvement and why they pose the sort of problem to ultra-modern physicists and for society. half One additionally contains info of a few of Professor Ginzburg's paintings, together with superconductivity and superfluidity. half encompasses a number of articles at the lives and works of numerous trendy physicists, together with the writer. The 3rd half is a set of articles that supply a private view of the writer, describing his own perspectives and reminiscences on a variety of wider themes.

Taken jointly, this choice of articles creates an stress-free evaluation of physics, its philosophy, and key avid gamers in its glossy improvement within the twentieth Century. definitely, it will likely be an stress-free learn for pro physicists and non-scientists alike.

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It happens that, on observational grounds, one can conclude that Λ = 0 and, moreover, the contribution of Λ dominates in Ω compared to other forms of matter, which causes the Universe to expand with acceleration and not with deceleration at the present time [150–153, 180–183, 204, 239, 240]. 9) where Ωb corresponds to the contribution of baryons (and, of course, electrons), Ωd allows for the dark matter and ΩΛ for the contribution of the ‘vacuum energy’ or ‘dark energy’. 8), we have ΩΛ = ρv c2 Λ = ρc 3H 2 Λ= 3ΩΛ H 2 .

If they are located in the giant galactic halo so that R ∼ 100 kpc (this does not already contradict the data on the angular distribution of sources), then Wγ 1044 erg. Finally, if the bursts are of cosmological origin and, for example, R ∼ 1000 Mpc then we already have Wγ 1052 erg. This value is so large that many scientists (including me) gave preference to the halo model but, in 1997, a gamma-burst was ‘observed’ immediately (i. e. its position was located almost instantaneously) and sources with a large redshift were discovered [100, 101].

The tank is surrounded by 13 000 photomultipliers which register the Vavilov– Cherenkov radiation from the muons, electrons, and positrons produced in the water by neutrinos that get into the tank. Here we are speaking of the electron and muon neutrinos formed by cosmic rays in the atmosphere on the opposite side of the Earth. If there are no oscillations then, according to reliable calculations, in the tank there should be twice as many electron neutrinos as muon neutrinos. But, in reality, the numbers of νe and νµ are the same (their energy is of the order of 1 GeV).

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