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By Arthur Adamson (Auth.)

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Some sample graphs, again for a gas of molecular weight 28, are shown in Fig. 2-4. Notice that there is now a nonzero most probable velocity, in contrast to the situation in Fig. 2-2. The reason is that, while the probability of individual velocity components u and ν decreases with their increasing values, the number of ways in which a given velocity magnitude c can be made up of the u and ν components 2-3 THE DISTRIBUTION OF MOLECULAR VELOCITIES 0 410 5 10 FIG. 2 - 4 , I _ 15 47 20 c, cm sec Molecular velocity distribution for N 2 in two dimensions.

One may use Fig. 1-18 to calculate B(T) for various gases if their parameters σ and φ* are known, and some of these values are given in Table 1-6. Notice that the existence of a single curve for B(T) is an illustration of the principle of corre- 0, TABLE 1-6. 9 */k Gas Ne Ar Kr Xe N 2 o 2 CH 4 co a 2 From J. O. Hirschfelder, C. F. Curtiss, and R. B. , p. 165. Wiley, New York, 1964. 32 CHAPTER 1: IDEAL AND NONIDEAL GASES sponding states. Here B/b and kT/φ* are the reduced variables. The L e n n a r d 0 Jones potential becomes a rather p o o r approximation, however, as one goes to diatomic and polyatomic molecules, especially those which are polar and nonspherical and the treatment as outlined is much too simple to give a good represen­ tation of the P-V-T behavior of such gases over more than a narrow range of conditions.

In general, then, pressure can be treated as a set of stresses or directional vectors. 64) COMMENTARY AND NOTES 27 Since a liquid does not support stress, the pressure around any portion of a liquid must be isotropic. This is not true, however, in the surface region. The pressure normal to the surface must indeed be the same as the general pressure throughout the system. However, the pressure parallel to the surface varies through the inter­ face. Analysis shows that the surface tension y can be calculated if the difference between the pressure normal to the surface and that parallel to the surface is known as a function of distance through the interface.

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