By Nicholas A. Hopkins
The lexical information mentioned during this Chuj-English dictionary have been accumulated in the course of my
dissertation box paintings in 1964-65. My first publicity to the Chuj language was once in 1962, while I
went to Huehuetenango with Norman A. McQuown and Brent Berlin to collect facts on the
languages of the Cuchumatanes (Berlin et al. 1969). on the time i used to be a graduate pupil at the
University of Texas, hired as a examine assistant at the college of Chicago's Chiapas
Study initiatives, directed by means of McQuown (McQuown and Pitt-Rivers 1970). operating via the
Maryknoll monks who have been then the Catholic clergy within the indigenous components of Huehuetenango
and in other places in Guatemala, we recorded fabric, frequently within the kind of 100-word Swadesh
lists (for glottochronology), from a number of languages. The pattern integrated audio system of the
Chuj number of San Mateo Ixtatán (including the guy who was once later to turn into my major
In the Spring of 1962, as box paintings for the undertaking wound down, I back to Austin to
finish drafting my Master's thesis, after which went directly to Chicago to start graduate stories in
Anthropology on the collage of Chicago, with McQuown as my significant professor. I continued
to paintings on Chiapas undertaking fabrics in McQuown's documents, and in 1963 he assigned me the
Chuj language because the subject of my upcoming doctoral dissertation. Over the subsequent educational 12 months I
transcribed and analyzed the Chuj fabrics we had accrued and ready initial analyses
of the phonology and morphology of the language.
At the tip of the summer season of 1964, with aid from a countrywide safeguard schooling Act
Foreign Language Fellowship, I went to Huehuetenango to start box paintings on Chuj. via the end
of August I had shriveled an informant (Francisco Santizo Andrés) and rented a home in
Huehuetenango, and we all started paintings in earnest. From then till September of 1965 we worked
an eight-hour day, six days every week, with occasional breaks whilst Francisco may move domestic and I
would visit San Cristóbal de Las Casas, the place Berlin and different anthropologists and linguists
were engaged on their very own projects.
We started via reviewing my initial analyses and correcting my error of
transcription, in addition to my phonemic research. even as Francisco realized to transcribe
Chuj within the technical orthography that we used on the time (using ¢ for the alveolar affricate, c
with hachek for the alveopalatal affricate, x for the velar fricative, etc.). through the years I elicited
Terry Kaufman's Mayan Vocabulary Survey record (a kind of 1400-item questionnaire
covering uncomplicated vocabulary for Mesoamerican languages), and a Monosyllable Dictionary. The
latter, it sounds as if designed by way of Kaufman for the Chicago tasks, took good thing about the CVC
shape of such a lot Mayan roots, and concerned producing the checklist of attainable CVC mixtures and
attempting to elicit vocabulary in line with every one. One good thing about this system is that it elicits
vocabulary that will in a different way no longer take place to both the informant or the investigator, including
onomatopoetic kinds in addition to hardly ever heard lexical iterms. We additionally started to checklist narratives.
Francisco might dictate a textual content to the tape recorder, operated through me, after which transcribe the tape
(see Hopkins 1980b). i might move over the transcriptions and ask questions on the grammar
and lexicon. all of the lexical fabric amassed through those strategies used to be wear three x five slips and filed
in the lexical dossier that's the foundation for the current dictionary.
In February of 1965, the botanist Dennis E. Breedlove, who used to be operating in Chiapas with
Brent Berlin on Tzeltal ethnobotany (see Berlin, Breedlove and Raven 1974, Breedlove 1981),
came to Huehuetenango to assemble crops within the Cuchumatanes, together with in particular the Chujspeaking
region, the place there has been vast cloud woodland. We accumulated for 2 days close to San
Juan Ixcoy and the Captzin rocks, after which went directly to San Mateo Ixtatán for 4 extra days.
Francisco and Dennis amassed the specimens and Dennis recorded the botanical information,
including the locality, altitude, and so on. and feedback at the vegetation. Francisco and that i recorded the Chuj
names of the crops and their ethnobotanical category (in phrases of the types 'anh, te',
ch'anh, and 'ixim). in keeping with my box notes we amassed 1328 specimens in that box session
(Br 8465-9793). those info went into my lexical slip records, and the result of this and other
collecting journeys have been later released (Breedlove and Hopkins 1970-71). The botanical IDs from
that booklet are included during this dictionary.
In may perhaps of 1965 Francisco and that i performed a two-week dialect survey of the realm in
which San Mateo Ixtatán Chuj used to be spoken, within the municipios of San Mateo Ixtatán and Nentón,
collecting fabric from 17 aldeas and town heart, a complete of 27 questionnaires. a number of texts
were recorded in this box season, and as ordinary, the transcribed fabric was once incorporated
into my lexical records. on the finish of this dialect survey Francisco and that i accumulated extra plant
specimens (H 0001-0038).
The selection of plant names encouraged me to assemble animal names to boot, and to take
notes on their local type. Absent box paintings at the venture, we consulted reference
books, together with Ibarra's Mamíferos de Guatemala, Alvarez del Toro's Reptiles de Chiapas, and
Peterson's box courses to the birds. the various names were amassed throughout the Mayan
Vocabulary Survey elicitation or the Monosyllable Dictionary. within the strategy of recording this
information, i started to discover the Chuj method of gender markers that partitioned the animals
into coherent sessions, and Francisco went during the lexical documents and additional the gender markers
to the slips. the result of this research have been released within the ill-fated magazine of Mayan
Linguistics (Hopkins 1980a).
In Guatemala urban I had bought the topographical maps for the quarter of
Huehuetenango (Dirección basic de Cartografía, 1963; see box Notes, 6-12 September,
1964) and Francisco and that i pored over the maps position by way of position as I recorded the Chuj names,
most of that have been garbled within the Spanish models (the locative yich, 'base of', for example, was
almost unavoidably transcribed Ix-). i eventually brought to the Instituto Nacional de Geografía
and to the Instituto Indigenista Nacional a corrected record, for what that was once worthy. My research of
the formation of Chuj position names was once later publshed (Hopkins 1972), and all of the position names
were further to my lexical records. The Spanish position names pronounced listed below are the reputable names, as
registered within the Diccionario geográfico de Guatemala (Dirección basic de Cartografía 1961-
A graduate pupil in Geology from LSU used to be dwelling in Huehuetenango in 1964-65, and
he pointed out many of the rocks and minerals we had names for. For the result of his examine and
related paintings within the Cuchumatanes through him and his colleagues, see Blount 1967 and Anderson et
In August of 1965, Dennis Breedlove and Brent Berlin got here to Guatemala to collect
plants and talk about additional tasks. With Francisco's support, they gathered close to Antigua and then
again within the Chuj sector, all jointly one other 292 specimens (Br 11397-11689). Brent and that i met
with Chris Day, one other Chicago graduate scholar (in the sphere engaged on Jacaltec whereas I was
working on Chuj, see Day 1973), a couple of comparative learn of numeral classifiers within the three
languages, Tzeltal, Jacaltec and Chuj. Over the following few years we collaborated in a preliminary
project, yet by no means introduced it to fruition. The plan was once for Chris to bring together and evaluate the
vocabularies, Brent to jot down up the semantics (as in his 1964 and 1968 monographs), and for me
to study the grammars. basically the grammatical research reached ebook (Hopkins 1970).
However, the entire info I had generated in regards to the Chuj numeral classifiers went into my
I lower back to Chicago in September, 1965, to complete my graduate paintings and my doctoral
dissertation (Hopkins 1967). I then took a role educating Anthropology on the college of Texas
in Austin, and persisted to technique my Chuj fabrics. I married Kathryn Josserand in 1970 and
spent a 12 months in Milwaukee, the place she have been educating, after which back to Texas. In 1973 we
left Texas for Mexico urban, on the invitation of Angel Palerm to set up the Programa de
Lingüística on the new Centro de Investigaciones Superiores del INAH that he directed (now
CIESAS, the Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social). paintings on
Chuj used to be deserted in desire of box education and learn on languages toward Mexico City,
especially Otomanguean languages. many years later, simply because we had began to stick with the
developments in Maya epigraphy, we started to paintings on Mayan languages back, yet box work
was on Chol, no longer Chuj.
I didn't go back to paintings on Chuj until eventually 2005-6, whilst I got a countrywide Endowment for
the Humanities Documenting Endangered Languages Fellowship. This fellowship allowed me to
prepare my Chuj fabrics for digitization and archiving on the Archive of the Indigenous
Languages of Latin the US (AILLA, www.ailla.utexas.org). Now, in 2012, all my recorded
materials on Chuj are archived. in addition to my transcribed box Notes and box images, a
revised model of my dissertation, rewritten in smooth sensible orthography, will entire this
The assortment comprises all of the recorded and transcribed Chuj texts, a few forty samples of
Chuj speech from 8 Chuj settlements, a few of which not exist. greater than twenty of
the settlements stated right here as position names have been deserted or destroyed within the genocide of the
so-called civil battle (Manz 1988:83-89). it's my goal so as to add to the AILLA archive collection
much of my written fabric besides, together with vast notes made whereas discussing grammar
and lexicon with Francisco Santizo Andrés. All this fabric is to be freely on hand to anyone
interested, and an digital model of the current Dictionary can be additional to the collection.
In the summer time of 2011, I dug out of a closet a wood chest that contained 4 drawers
of lexical slip records, untouched in view that approximately 1970. Over the following couple of months I transcribed the
lexical entries into an digital textual content dossier, rewriting the orthography into the now legitimate Chuj
script (Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala, 1988). i've got tried to ensure that those materials
include the entire facts on plant and animal names, position names, numeral classifiers, etc., that I had
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Additional info for A DICTIONARY OF THE CHUJ (MAYAN) LANGUAGE
Plant name: a hardwood tree (te te'), leaves 3-4" long, tapered. Found in San Mateo. The branches of these leaves are used to adorn the boxes in which ritual implements are kept in the house of the Alcalde Rezador. Br 8773. Prunus brachybotrya. 'awlap', n (te'). " 'awwih + N, vin (vtr + incorporated object). To plant N (plant name), to N-plant. Ex: kawwih tut, We're planting beans; yawwih tut winh, He's planting beans. 'awal, n ('ixim). " 'awalanup', n (lum). Place name: Las Majadas, a caserío of San Mateo.
In hot country only, especially on the Coast. 'ih, conj. And. Cf. " 'ij, n (nok'; 'ajtzo', 'ix). Wood-eating insects that burrow tunnels through seasoned wood. Small, like fleas, brownish or blackish, they have wings under a cover on their backs and can fly. Especially bad in hot country; if a house is left for a year they eat most of it. Cf. monte'. 'ijaxih, vin. To become eaten by 'ij, a wood-eating insect. Cf. 'och 'ijaxok. Ex: 'ix 'och 'ijaxok, it's been drilled by 'ij. 'ijp'ih, vin. To become drilled through by 'ij, a wood-boring insect.
Differs from tzalaj k'ap', "garrobo," which has a fringed ridge along the spine. 'inhat, n. Seed, or seed corn (hung along the length of a house beam). Ex: yinhat, his seed (for his planting). yinhatil 'ixim, seed corn. cha tel 'inhat, two polesful of seed corn. Cf. te', te'el. 'ip, n. Strength, force. Ex: yip winh, his strength. halxo yipal, he's strong = tzijtum yipal, jantak yipal. 'ipan, stv. To enter into a fight, a discussion, etc. Ex: 'ipanin, I enter a discussion. 'ipum, n (nok'; 'ajtzo', 'ix).